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” Whatever plots and sub-plots that Harendra would have built for the Champions would have been slightly upset by the late injuries to Akashdeep and Sumit Kumar. We’re just beginning to understand the pain and the anger that comes from a disruption that we could have avoided"People in attendance inquired about the processes archaeologists and geophysicists would use to assess the site and recover the remains "Please please please treat them with respect" one woman told officials at the open houseIn the disturbance of unplatted burial grounds state law requires that the Indian Affairs Council assume leadership in the recovery process if the state archaeologist determines that the human remains are of Native American origin Tribal leadership must then receive possession of all remains for disposition"I am working in collaboration with the Fond du Lac Band and tribal elders and community members to make sure that it is done in the most respectful and best way possible" Jones said of the research and recovery work at the open house in JuneMnDOT continues to cooperate with the band the Indian Affairs Council and the Office of the State Archaeologist during regular meetings The agency plans to host a second open house at a date yet to be determinedJones hosted a two-day cultural resources training session earlier this month where he explained the relevant laws and shared replica artifacts — objects they would expect to find in the recovery effortEleven people attended the training session 10 of whom belonged to the Fond du Lac Band Jones said the training allows band members to help in the current project if they choose while preparing them for future projects"That went great" he said of the training session Additional training for band members will soon be scheduledNon-intrusive methodsDuring his 30-plus years of working in archaeology Jones has watched the growth of non-intrusive technologies in assessing historic sitesDave Maki of Archaeo-Physics LLC in Minneapolis said the technologies have caught on for a reason"It’s non-intrusive as opposed to traditional archaeology approaches" Maki said of methods such as electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar "We can learn something about the archeology without disturbing it and learn something about the cultural significance"Electrical resistivity is often used when mapping sites of archaeological significance Maki and Andrew Wise a Duluth resident Maki often hires were two of those figures in neon safety vests who have spent weeks toeing at least 2000 square meters of the historic burial ground’s surfaceEvery 25 centimeters Maki and Wise moved the electrical resistivity meter and poked its two metal stakes about a centimeter into the soil The stakes on the end of the instrument injected an electrical current into the ground to measure the resistivity of the material or how difficult it is for electricity to move through an area in the groundAn area of higher resistivity will show up darker on a map charting the data Maki said while less-resistant material will show up lighterMaki compares his data to how the known location of a remain appears when it’s surveyed and from that he can get a good idea of what is beneath the surfaceMaki said he almost always uses a second form of technology to verify the results of the first At Mission Creek his team used ground-penetrating radar or GPRGPR transmits a high-frequency radio signal into the ground while recording the time it takes for a reflected signal to return This indicates a target’s depth and location in the groundOn a morning in July one crew member slowly wheeled a box containing the radar antenna along the ground while another crew member watched as the data came in on the attached computer screen a few feet awayOn that particular morning Maki had help from two crew members as they surveyed a 50-meter stretch of road surface Maki likes to "oversample" to improve the data he said Every two centimeters the GPR equipment transmits a pulse into the ground but each transmission averages eight readings per pulse He calls it data-stackingMaki has had three men from the Leech Lake Reservation working with him all of whom have experience with burial recovery and archaeological work he said — experience they can use to help mentor othersThe archaeological processUnder Minnesota’s Field Archaeology Act state-owned land is subject to an archaeological survey before construction in order to preserve and protect archaeological matter"That’s another statute that was kind of missed on this project because it should have had an extensive archaeological review and even a records review" Jones saidArchaeologists refer to this first review as a Phase One survey because it provides a historical overview and answers whether the ground holds archaeological material before a project begins Projects that use federal money or are on state land require a Phase One surveySigrid Arnott of Sigrid Arnott Consulting the Minneapolis-based archaeological firm MnDOT hired this summer specializes in such surveys and is now serving on-site as the principal investigator Although she does not do the geophysical work Arnott often works with geophysicists including Archaeo-Physics because the science can inform archaeologists where historical objects are locatedShe describes her role as the facilitator of all the project’s moving parts"It’s like building a forensics case" Arnott said "It’s not like you get one source of information that solves it all You have so many parts to the puzzle but every time we use a method it gives us a little more information"Project officials do not yet know when the project nor the Phase One survey will reach completion but archaeologists and trained band members will recover the remains for the band to then rebury properlyFor Arnott this project differs from her other archaeological work Instead of pursuing a research question she said the crew is guiding its decisions based on the band’s long-term needs"It’s probably going to help in the future on other sites" Arnott said "We’re developing new scientific methods and I think everyone is excited about that It could have a positive effect in the future or an outcome that would help other people"Ojibwe occupiedFond du Lac Band member Matthew Northrup said he was 10 when his father showed him the burial grounds at Mission Creek for the first time Northrup is the son of the late Jim Northrup who was a renowned author and Ojibwe traditionalist He showed a young Matthew the location of his ancestorsNow whenever Matthew Northrup drives past the site on Highway 23 he rolls down his window and performs the sacred ritual of burning tobacco"I’ve known forever that there are graves here" he said while visiting the site "I just didn’t know this project was happening"A couple blocks east of the burial site on Highway 23 sits a historical marker that notes "this was the site of a major Chippewa Indian settlement from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries"To the northwest on the other side of Jay Cooke State Park sits the Fond du Lac Reservation created by the Treaty of 1854 that ceded much of the Ojibwe-occupied Arrowhead region to the federal government for mining useThe area now known as the Fond du Lac neighborhood in Duluth along the St Louis River has served as Ojibwe gathering grounds since the 1600s but Native Americans started occupying the area thousands of years before"A lot of people think Indian Country is only on reservations but no this is all Indian" Northrup said as he waved his hand across the entire landscape in front of him5 tons of french fries were served in 2015, He debuted the first track, Adams last posted an update about the album in August and promised a final mix and master would be finished before the end of the month.

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