He added: “The next step will be CPL. I’m looking forward to that.” Pooran has played just three first-class games but has already shown sparks of promise with a half-century against Jamaica Scorpions and 47 against Guyana Jagaurs, which came in his last innings. The former West Indies Under-19 player said his return to cricket was a gradual one, but after initial struggles, he now felt back to his old self. “I started back playing some wind ball cricket, with some T20, T10, minor league cricket,” he noted. “It was good for me. I still had my batting intact. Nothing had changed. It’s just the wicket-keeping was a bit difficult at the start, but now I’m back to keeping as normal.” Pooran said that his time away from the game was a trying experience but pointed out that he had come to appreciate cricket even more as a result. “I have to thank God for life because it was a difficult period for me. Every day I looked at cricket, I kept missing it more and more, and when I started back playing, I was really eager to start back playing,” he said. “At a point in time, I wanted to rush to play, but that wasn’t good for me. Every time I saw cricket, I missed it a lot. I would be sitting down and watching other players batting, bowling, keeping or whatever, and I would say, ‘I know I can do better than that. I can do this and I can do that.” Pooran came to the fore when he lashed a superb 100 for West Indies at the Under-19 World Cup two years ago against Australia. PORT OF SPAIN, Trinidad (CMC): Attacking batsman Nicholas Pooran is anxious to resume his first-class career after making a full recovery from injuries sustained in a vehicular accident last year. The 20-year-old was preparing to turn out for Trinidad and Tobago Red Force in the 2015 Regional Super50 when he was involved in a car crash when returning home from training in January. He sustained leg and knee injuries, which kept him out of action for a protracted period, but has worked his way back steadily, and he played his first competitive match last Sunday for Queen’s Park Club in the domestic 50-overs competition. “I really thought I could have played in the [Regional Super50] but I didn’t get the chance to prove myself,” he told TV6 Sports here. “I didn’t have many trial games, and that was a bit unfortunate, so now I guess it’s back to club cricket, and when I make runs, hopefully, everything goes good and I get picked in one of the four-day games.” NEXT STEP
Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 1,044 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Dr Jerry Bergman reviews the new PBS documentary on one of the evils of Darwinism, The Eugenics Crusade. Finally, One of the Evils of Darwinism Has Gone Mainstreamby Dr Jerry BergmanA new PBS documentary, The Eugenics Crusade, begins with Charles Darwin and his cousin, Francis Galton, who spent his life developing Darwinian eugenics with the hope that it would be used to make both better people and a better society. To do this, Galton was inspired by the “work of his half cousin Charles Darwin [who] believed that evolution was this natural process that was inevitably leading towards what they called the ‘survival of the fittest.’” Galton turned that idea on its head, and concluded, “natural selection isn’t working very well. We need to do a form of selection. We need to intervene” in nature to evolve better people.Core Eugenic ValuesThe eugenic belief was that most positive talents, as well as negative traits including crime, pauperism, promiscuity, alcoholism and most other societal problems, were all genetic and ran in families. By applying evolution the negative could be eradicated: “Eugenics was proposed as the scientific solution for social problems. It was a combination of hope and aspiration on one side and on the other side it was about fear and, in some cases, about hate.” The solution was to identify the feebleminded, the imbeciles, and the idiots and to make sure they do not reproduce, because “it would have been better by far if they had never been born,” a racist idea heavily influenced by Darwin.America’s Eugenics Seedplot in Darwin SoilMany people assume “eugenics was a doctrine that originated with the Nazis, that it was grounded in wild claims that were far outside the scientific mainstream. Both of those impressions are fundamentally not true.” In America, eugenics support was close to a mania that “swept through the country. And there was that kind of naïve, optimistic vision of eugenics like, ‘Hey, let’s all get together and make better people.’”Soon Harvard graduate Dr. Charles Davenport (1886-1944), decided he was going to use science to create “a station for experimental evolution, not Darwinian natural selection that you just go out and observe, but … figure out how inheritance works … do experiments and find the patterns of heredity.” Absorbed by evolution, he journeyed to England to learn directly from Galton. Returning from England he “had a renewed courage for the … study of evolution.” Davenport firmly believed that mankind “could take charge of evolution” for the betterment of humanity.Davenport and Galton believed that “improving human heredity was of almost religious significance, of profound moral importance. They also believed they themselves were qualified to breed a better race because they believed that they were the best and the brightest … [and] you could take charge of human evolution.” Because we can’t do breeding experiments with human beings for several reasons, including the impossibility of one person not living long enough to study many generations, so “it was Davenport’s genius to realize if he could collect family pedigrees, he could trace family inheritances and try to prove that evolution works for human beings the way it works for animals.”The Progressive Utopian Dream, Scopes, and RacismAt this time there “was a great belief in science … in government, in bureaucracy as a tool for solving social problems, and also a belief in … the Progressive Movement [that] said, we can use state power and expert advice and knowledge to solve things like poverty .… Eugenics was part of that.” The 1915 Panama-Pacific Expo was a “celebration of science, …[and] an opportunity for the United States to demonstrate the power of science and technology, and also a utopian vision looking towards the future. Nowhere did the future look brighter than from the Race Betterment Exhibit” at the Expo.Dr. Henry H. Goddard, Director of Research at the Vineland Training School for Feeble-Minded Girls and Boys, was also inspired by Davenport. The result was his now infamous 1912 book The Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, often quoted in American textbooks for decades, including the one used by Scopes, the teacher at the center of the Scopes Monkey Trial. It was even in the speeches of politicians, books, scholarly journals, popular magazines and even relied on in Nazi Germany to support their racial policies. The Kallikak study began with a putative “feebleminded tavern girl, and a fateful tryst that over several generations had spawned more than a hundred mental defectives.” Long since debunked, it influenced millions of persons including Adolf Hitler.Hereditary Intelligence and IQ Testing for MoronsGoddard argued that the high-grade moron is functioning well-enough to act normal, but is stuck in a lower evolutionary level like some races were. Goddard concluded that the cause of 75 percent of all social problems in America was hereditary. The Progressive solution was State control of human reproduction. The problem was,it takes an expert to identify the true menace of feeblemindedness. So someone you’re sitting next to at a restaurant or in a theater could look perfectly normal to you and it only takes one feebleminded person marrying another one, even someone who’s not feebleminded, to create generations of feeblemindedness. What it did is up the stakes of feeblemindedness by claiming that it was a hidden menace that was more difficult to pinpoint than people might think. … Charles Davenport was convinced that certain human traits were passed down in a predictable way––and that American society could be dramatically improved if only reproduction were controlled.The solution was intelligence testing. Goddard was also the first to translate the French Binet Intelligence Test into English; later the revised version, the Stanford Binet, became a critical test for feeble mindedness that is still used today for school placement.The testing fad resulted in the Army alpha test for literate, and Army beta for illiterate persons, to evaluate draft inductees and aid in assignment of the three million men drafted in WWI. Of the 1.7 million who took the test, fully half were classified as Morons, many of whom had never held a pencil in their life, and many of these were out producing children compared to the non-morons! Goddard argued that morons should be removed from society through institutionalization, sterilization, or both. The conclusion is, we need to do something, and fast, about this problem.Eugenics as PhilanthropyDavenport appealed to wealthy philanthropist Mrs. H. M. Harriman, for funding. He told her that she either could help the poor for decades, or support eugenics to stem the production of feebleminded people. Eugenics could permanently and drastically reduce the feebleminded population. Heredity, not environment, was the problem. Mrs. Harriman’s deceased husband’s success at horse breeding influenced her to accept Davenport’s arguments. Davenport persuaded Mrs. Harriman that the future of the country was at stake, and only eugenics could save it. Instead of giving to the poor, in 1910 she funded the Eugenics Record Office to guide reproductive research programs of the nation.The Record Office spent millions of hours and dollars producing an enormous amount of data. In the end, the thousands of records were declared useless because they were based on subjective evaluations of information collected both from personal interviews and unverified family histories, often hearsay.Eugenics Supported with Religious FervorAmerica was rapidly saturated with the eugenics idea, a movement then advocated with religious fervor. Soon, over 350 colleges taught eugenics classes, including Harvard, Northwestern, and the University of California at Berkeley. People were even judged at eugenics fairs to see how close they were to the ideal Nordic race. Fitter Families contests were established that rated family members and, like cattle, gave ribbons for those that bred the best children as determined by evaluations requiring as long as three hours. Eugenics also was preached from pulpits by leading ministers, promoted on lecture circuits, and was even used to sell newfangled beauty treatments.Cruel and Unusual Punishment for UndesirablesAlso recommended was a new surgical procedure called “sterilization.” By cutting and sealing the reproductive organs, both men and women could be made infertile. The technique was first used primarily on criminals––particularly sex offenders––and was thought to have a curative effect. Laughlin “envisioned a broader application: as a eugenic tool that would eliminate defective germ-plasm once and for all.”According to the Eugenics Sterilization Act of 1913, 15 million Americans needed to be sterilized. Even President Theodore Roosevelt was on board, writing that “society has no business to permit degenerates to reproduce, … It is really extraordinary that our people refuse to apply to human beings such … knowledge as every successful farmer is obliged to apply to his own stock breeding.”America Inspires HitlerIn 1916 Madison Grant, a wealthy Wall Street lawyer and eugenicist, published The Passing of the Great Race: or, The Racial Basis of European History. In this book, Grant invented a race called the Nordics, atall, blond-haired, blue-eyed race. According to Grant, the Nordics are the most recently evolved of all the races. That means their genetic traits are still fragile. They’re not fully formed. And so if a blond-haired, blue-eyed Nordic mates with a more primitive race, a Mediterranean, a Jew, certainly a Negro or an Asiatic, the more primitive genes of the inferior race will actually overwhelm the superior but not yet stable genes of the Nordics.Hitler said almost the same thing in Mein Kampf. Madison Grant took Darwinian eugenics the next step which hitherto was concerned only with survival of the fittest individuals, and Grant turned it into “we need to be concerned with the survival of the fittest race. We need to preserve the Nordic race.” Adolf Hitler and other world leaders openly embraced the Grant book and its message. Hitler, personally wrote to Grant to thank him for writing his book, even referring to it as “my Bible.” It is ironic that an American was an important source in giving Hitler the ideas he ran with that resulted in the Holocaust.Immigrant Phobia Among the ElitistsMadison Grant’s own experiences centered around his concerns over the growing numbers of immigrants from non-Nordic Europe (Poland, Russia, and other Eastern European countries) and especially Jews, who eugenicists believed are inferior, and “found the data to back it up.” Grant believed the Nordic race was intellectually superior to all of these people groups and concluded that the Western Europeans were being out-bred by “inferior” immigrant racial stocks. The supporters thought of eugenics “as the beginning of a revolution … a religious movement .… that seemed exciting and full of possibility” to create a new world.”Grant later persuaded Congressman Albert Johnson and Senator David Reed to sponsor The Johnson–Reed Act, the final version which passed on May 26, 1924. The law blocked about 97 percent of immigrants from Eastern Europe compared to previously admitted numbers. It did not affect immigrants from Central or South America. The law was supported by many influential Americans, including Margaret Sanger, and Alexander Graham Bell.See Dr Bergman’s 2019 Jan 9 article, “Holocaust Intensity Worse than Believed.”Nazi Criminals Defend Themselves by Citing American LawsIt closed the door to most Jews, including the well-known diarist Anne Frank and her family, preventing them from escaping Nazi Germany: “We think about Anne Frank dying in a concentration camp because the Germans thought the Jews were genetically inferior, but to some extent Anne Frank died in a concentration camp because the U.S. Congress believed that as well.” At the Nuremberg court that tried the worst Nazi war criminals, the lawyers defending the Nazis cited the Johnson–Reed Act as well as the U.S. Supreme court case of Bell v. Buck, discussed below, to justify their Nazi eugenics programs.The Supreme Court RulesIt is hard to imagine a weaker person to come before the Supreme Court than Carrie Buck. She was destitute, alone, her mother was an inmate, and her lawyer, who did nothing for her, was chosen by her enemies. She asked the seat of justice in America to not forcibly operate, which was denied, thus she lost her right to birth children. And what the eugenic supporters wanted was a test case to legalize forced sterilization in all 48 states. The Supreme Court gave it to them, writing:In May 1927, the court’s majority opinion was rendered by the venerable Oliver Wendell Holmes, who, at 86, was widely regarded as America’s most brilliant legal mind. “It is better for all the world,” Holmes wrote, “if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind …. Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”Blacks Misled toward the Eugenics Primrose PathThe eugenics movement was even taken up by blacks who concluded one solution to discrimination was to breed negroes for intelligence, talent and other desirable traits. In fact, sopervasive was the impulse to human improvement, even prominent African-Americans took up the theme. W.E.B. DuBois, one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, maintained that the “best” of the black race––what he called “the Talented Tenth”––was the hope for the future. “The Negro,” DuBois declared, “… must begin to … breed for brains, for efficiency, for beauty.”Abortion Rooted in EugenicsThe eugenics movement even helped Margaret Sanger: “Once birth control is packaged as a way of improving the human race, it seems more manageable. There were a lot of people that were on the fence that she convinced to embrace birth control because of its eugenic potential. It was being labeled a birth control activist that was truly controversial. Being a eugenicist was far more acceptable.” The main opposition was conservative churches, and for their opposition they were condemned by the scientific establishment. In short, eugenics is anall-encompassing creed. It’s a faith. It’s a religion. And Harry Laughlin and Madison Grant understood, we need the people to be converted of this religion so that everyone will understand, “If I am eugenically superior I cannot date and certainly cannot mate with a eugenically unfit person.”In other words, before you date, test and evaluate using eugenic tests, including a Stanford-Binet IQ test, to evaluate your potential mate.The Movement FaltersA factor in eugenics decline was the progress in genetics and the realization that heredity was far more complex than Mendel’s simple ratios based on his dominant and recessive trait theory. Most traits are not the result of a feeble minded, or pauper gene, or sexuality-promiscuity gene, or alcoholic gene, but the result of many genes, some co-dominant, others semi-dominant, others with incomplete penetrance. It is a rare trait that results from one gene; even simple traits like eye color involve many genes.Thomas Hunt Morgan at first believed in the transformative power of eugenics. He served on the board at the Eugenics Record Office since it first opened, but basedon the lessons he’d learned in the Fly Room, it seemed clear that eugenic science, such as it was, had no business informing American laws. … I think it is just as well for some of us to set a better standard, and not appear as participators in the show. … I study fruit flies and I can’t figure out how their eyes work. I can’t figure out which one’s going to inherit certain kinds of wings and you seem to be saying you can understand who’s gonna inherit something as vague as criminality or pauperism.The PBS film documented the final blow to the eugenics movement was increasing awareness of the horrors of the Nazi concentration camps after WWII.Furthermore, as is obvious today, poverty is not primarily biological, but environmental, as documented by the great depression of 1929 when thousands of well-educated, successful professionals and business owners lost everything. It is also not primarily biological, as proven by the correlation of poverty and early social associations, and the commonality of crime by the non-poor, such as by professionals, including lawyers and doctors. The “problem with utopias is that they set a set of aspirations that then blind you to a certain set of consequences and that … can be dangerous.”Even though the eugenics arguments originally used to justify sterilization ended due to the gruesome revelations of Nazi war crimes, thousands of people would continue to be sterilized well into the 1960s, many with no knowledge of what had been done to them. Eugenics science was based on extensive research and data and, therefore, appeared eminently reasonable, but as evidence accumulated, turned out to be horribly wrong. The eugenic sterilization mania only ended in the 1970s after more than 60,000 Americans were sterilized after being judged “mentally deficient.”Along the way, the documentary covered abuses of IQ tests and racism, showing how people who uncritically relied on science and scientists to justify acts that were made with the best of intentions, but had horrendous effects, including the Holocaust. Could the same problem be true with Darwinism today? Darwin, Charles. 1859. The Origin of Species. London: John Murray. Transcript of The Eugenics Crusade. What’s Wrong with Perfect? DVD. 2018. American Experience Series. Written by Michael Ferrari and edited by George O’Donnell, p. 2. Transcript, p. 1. Zitzer, Leon. 2016. Darwin’s Racism. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. Transcript, p. 1. Transcript, p. 2 Transcript, p. 2 Comfort, Nathaniel 2012. The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine. New Haven: Yale University Press. Transcript, pp. 3, 4. Transcript, p. 4. Transcript, p. 5. Transcript, p. 12. Goddard, Henry. 1912. The Kallikak Family. New York: MacMillan. Transcript, p. 13. Smith, David and Michael L. Wehmeyer. 2012. Good Blood, Bad Blood: Science, Nature, and the Myth of the Kallikaks. New York: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Transcript, p. 6. Transcript, p, 6-7 Transcript, p. 14. Transcript, p. 7. Rosen, Christine. 2004. Preaching Eugenics. New York: Oxford University Press. Transcript, p. 10. Transcript, p. 9. Transcript, p. 16. Transcript, p. 17. Bergman, Jerry Hitler and the Nazi Darwinian Worldview: How the Nazi Eugenic Crusade for a Superior Race Caused the Greatest Holocaust in World History. 2012. Kitchener, Ontario, Canada: Joshua Press. Transcript, p. 18. Transcript, p. 10. Transcript, p. 19. Cohen, Adan. 2016. Imbeciles: The Supreme Court, American Eugenics, and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck. New York: Penguin Press. Transcript. p. 23. Transcript, p. 21. Transcript, p. 19. Shipley, Maynard. 1927. The War on Modern Science. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Transcript, p. 20. Transcript, p. 11. Transcript, p. 25 Transcript, p. 8. How Darwinism Corrodes Morality: Darwinism, Immorality, Abortion and the Sexual Revolution. 2017. Kitchener, Ontario, Canada: Joshua Press.Ed: See also the documentary Human Zoos by John West, now free on YouTube, showing the history of Darwinian racism. read more
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and its research partners, using an ensemble modeling approach, announced a prediction that the 2015 western Lake Erie harmful algal bloom season will be among the most severe in recent years and could become the second most severe behind the record-setting 2011 bloom.The effects of the cyanobacterial blooms include a higher cost for cities and local governments to treat their drinking water, as well as risk to swimmers in high concentration areas, and a nuisance to boaters when blooms form. These effects will vary in locations and severity with winds, and will peak in August or early September, according to the prediction.The bloom will be expected to measure 8.7 on the severity index with a range from 8.1 to potentially as high as 9.5. This is more severe than the last year’s 6.5, and may equal or exceed 2013, which had the second worse bloom in this century. The severity index runs from a high of 10, which corresponds to the 2011 bloom, the worst ever observed, to zero. A severity above 5 indicates blooms of particular concern.“While we are forecasting a severe bloom, much of the lake will be fine most of the time. The bloom will develop from west to east in the Lake Erie Western Basin, beginning this month. It is important to note that these effects will vary with winds, and will peak in September,” said Richard Stumpf, Ph.D., NOAA’s ecological forecasting applied research lead at NCCOS, who formally presented the forecast in a media event and science presentation at Ohio State University’s Stone Lab on Lake Erie in July.“This is the fourth seasonal harmful algal bloom outlook for Lake Erie that NOAA has issued,” said Holly Bamford, Ph.D., assistant NOAA administrator for the National Ocean Service performing duties of the assistant secretary of commerce for conservation and management. “NOAA’s ecological forecasting initiative, including this Lake Erie seasonal forecast, the NOAA weekly HAB bulletin, and the experimental early season HABs Tracker, provide science-based information that water managers, public health officials, and others need to make critical decisions to protect the health of their communities, understand environmental impacts, and mitigate damages to recreational activities that are a vital part of the region’s economy.”The 2015 seasonal forecast uses models that translate spring nutrient loading into predicted algal blooms in the western basin of Lake Erie. After a relatively dry April and May, the heavy rains in June produced record discharge and nutrient loadings from the Maumee River, which runs through Toledo, Ohio as well as northeastern Indiana, will result in a more severe bloom. This marks the fourth year that NOAA has issued an annual outlook for western Lake Erie.Those in agriculture are concerned about the predictions as well, but point out that many factors behind the projected algal bloom are beyond the control of Ohio’s farmers.In a joint statement From Tadd Nicholson, executive director of the Ohio Corn & Wheat Growers Association and Kirk Merritt, executive director of the Ohio Soybean Council, those concerns were addressed.“Grain farmers from around the state expressed concern today about the Lake Erie algae forecast. This issue affects all Ohioans and farmers will continue to demonstrate their commitment to continuous improvement by increasing conservation practices, investing in vital research and participating in ongoing educational programs,” the statement said. “While these actions will make a difference, one variable that farmers cannot control is rainfall. Unfortunately Ohio has experienced record rainfall this year — making a difficult and complicated problem even more so. Rain can be a major factor in large runoff events, not only in agriculture but among all sources of nutrient loss.“Nutrients are a natural and necessary part of growing crops and always will be. The good news is Ohio has done an excellent job of keeping the focus on finding practical, science-based solutions to keep the nutrients on the fields where they belong. We do not have to choose between food production and clean water. Both can be achieved.”The prediction models were developed by scientists at NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), the University of Michigan, LimnoTech, the University of Michigan Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research, and the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). The models use nutrient load data collected by Heidelberg University’s National Center for Water Quality Research.“Last summer’s Toledo water crisis was a wake-up call to the serious nature of harmful algal blooms in America’s waters,” said Jeff Reutter, Ph.D., senior advisor to, and former director of, The Ohio State University’s Sea Grant program and Stone Laboratory. “This forecast once again focuses attention on this issue, and the urgent need to take action to address the problems caused by excessive amounts of nutrients from fertilizer, manure and sewage flowing into our lakes and streams.”To provide more real-time information during the bloom season, NOAA has produced HAB bulletins for western Lake Erie since 2008. The bulletins will continue at the twice-weekly frequency established during last season’s Toledo event, and can be received by a subscription to the NOAA Lake Erie HAB Bulletin. Additional information on the size and movement of the bloom can be found via NOAA’s experimental HAB Tracker. As the summer progresses, field observations on water quality, algal biomass and toxicity will be collected by NOAA GLERL and CILER, the Ohio State University’s Sea Grant Program and Stone Laboratory, Heidelberg University, the University of Toledo, Ohio EPA, and LimnoTech. USGS will work with NASA in providing satellite tracking of the bloom as well. These results will provide valuable information to regional managers and assist NCCOS scientists in further refining the accuracy of this year’s forecast models.The Lake Erie forecast is part of a NOAA ecological forecasting initiative that aims to deliver accurate, relevant, timely and reliable ecological forecasts directly to coastal resource managers and the public as part of its stewardship and scientific mandates for coastal, marine and Great Lakes resources. Additionally, NOAA currently provides, or is developing, HABs and hypoxia forecasts for the Gulf of Maine, Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific NorthwestNOAA, NASA, EPA, and the U.S. Geological Survey announced, in April, a $3.6 million multi-agency research effort designed to be an early warning system for freshwater nuisance and toxic algal blooms by using satellites that can gather color data from freshwater bodies during scans of the Earth. The project will improve the understanding of the environmental causes and health effects of cyanobacteria and phytoplankton blooms. The effort includes the Great Lakes and will further strengthen initiatives like the NOAA Lake Erie HABs forecast. read more
1234567<> Cindy Chance, Cultural Anthropologist for the National Park Service in Chesapeake Bay, is a big fan of geocachers discovering their area:Rangers here at the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail love how the adventure of geocaching introduces people to significant and beautiful places, often close to home. And we’re thrilled that geocachers can now more easily see where the game is played at national parks. So get up, get out, and Find Your Park! Florida BISC: Biscayne National Park, EarthCache GC32CDG According to the Biscayne National Park site, “Biscayne protects a rare combination of aquamarine waters, emerald islands, and fish-bejeweled coral reefs. Here too is evidence of 10,000 years of human history, from pirates and shipwrecks to pineapple farmers and presidents. Outdoors enthusiasts can boat, snorkel, camp, watch wildlife…or simply relax in a rocking chair gazing out over the bay.”But Gary A. Bremen, Park Ranger for the Biscayne National Park says it best:What’s worth celebrating? As the largest marine park in the National Park System, Biscayne is “bi-seasonal!” We get loads of visitors from across the country all winter long. The snowier it is up north, the busier we get at our mainland visitor center. Lots of those folks enjoy tracking down our caches here, all of which have been created by and for experienced cachers. But most of the park’s half-million visitors come in their own boats, so we are very excited about new caches that are going to be placed where boaters can access them on the park’s islands.Arizona HistoricAZ66: Painted Desert Inn, Traditional GC3EPH7 1234567<> DID YOU KNOW that in the year 1916:Woodrow Wilson was President of the United StatesA carton of milk cost 33¢Women won the right to vote….and the National Park Service (NPS) was born? That’s right. Since August 25, 2016, the NPS* has preserved America’s special places, “for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations”. To celebrate this impressive milestone, the NPS is sponsoring a Find Your Park GeoTour to engage communities and help people discover nature through geocaching.The Find Your Park GeoTour launched with 61 geocaches, and now it’s up to 87. Will we get to 100 by the end of this year? We hope so! In the meantime, here are five fantastic geocaches from the GeoTour to peek your interest:WashingtonRainier100 1: The Glaciers are Restless, EarthCache GC5W946 123456<> 1234567<> 1234567<> Part of the Petrified Forest National Park, The Painted Desert Inn is also close to turning 100 years old! The original building is from the 1920s and was made of petrified wood, but today’s adobe facade is from the 1930s.Geocacher harbhippo had this to say in a recent log:After touring PeFo for free thanks to my handy dandy senior pass, and scoring several virtuals and earthcaches, we saw this traditional coming up and parked the car. I didn’t even bother looking at the hint because it’s so much more fun to try without first, and a ranger pokes his head out the door of the Inn and says “found it yet?” – which is geo-speak for “are you a cacher too?”He had a little fun with us for a while because of course the hand held Garmin doesn’t work indoors, then he led us to the cache with a smile. We spent an hour or so talking about the history of the Inn, probably more than we would have done had we stumbled on the cache without being caught, Very interesting place. If you stop by, be sure to look into the windows to see the tiny apartments the employees lived in back in the day. And check out the history, it’s really interesting.So what are you waiting for? There’s an entire country full of geocaches, national parks, and adventure. Fill up the tank, pack the cooler, and make sure to BYOP!*Official representatives of parks, land management organizations and law enforcement agencies should know that they’re eligible for a free Premium Membership.** Premium membership allows these organizations the ability to identify geocaches currently placed in your region, receive notifications when new geocaches in your area are placed, and communicate with the geocachers who are playing in your area. Win Win!**These accounts are not meant for the personal use of employees of such organizationAdditional Information: Find more about the Find Your Park GeoTour right here! Rugged.Beautiful.Diverse.These are some of the words used to describe the Maine’s stunning Acadia National Park. Geocacher hedgeslammer‘s log is what every cache owner hopes others will experience:A great way to highlight the interesting formation of the land that makes the park! Like so many caches, this one brought me to some places I’d never have gone (but some are must-go). I pegged away at this one over a few days while some muggle friends went back to the cabin. A great experience, nabbed a few other caches in the process, and benchmarks too! Thanks for this excellent, scenic and educational EarthCache program! Of course, a favorite!VirginiaCJS – Watermens Museum, Letterbox Hybrid GC2F40P The Mt. Rainier National Park is so incredible that it’s no surprise that this geocache is in the Find your Park Geotour and The Rainier Centennial GeoTour. Kevin Bacher, Mt. Rainier’s Volunteer and Outreach Program Manager, says:For geocachers, Mount Rainier offers many opportunities. We have Earth Caches and Virtual Caches scattered throughout the park, some of them easy to get to, and others at the end of long hikes. Measure the temperature of warm springs at Longmire. Learn about glaciers at Paradise, floods at Ohanapecosh, and lava flows at Sunrise. Or train for the arduous climb to Camp Muir to claim one of the most remote virtual caches in Washington State! Along the way, hike through old growth forests and subalpine meadows with spectacular views. We also sponsor an annual CITO on National Trails Day, which is June 4th this year.Maine ACADIA: Mind-Blowing Geology, EarthCache GC11M7T Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedSanta Fe National Historic Trail GeoTour (GT34)February 11, 2019In “Community”Want a Reward for Finding Geocaches? Keep Reading…March 2, 2015In “Community”Petrified Forest- Route 66—Geocache of the WeekAugust 25, 2016In “Community” read more
Related Posts Tags:#Apple#web Three iPhone application developers are cited in an online petition which asks Apple to approve their apps, all of which have been sitting in limbo for months on end. The developers are awaiting word about their new DJ applications which let users mix loops of their own iTunes tracks stored in their iPhone or iPod Touch’s music library. In this case, it’s speculated that the holdup either has to do with rights issues surrounding the music or possibly the way the apps in question access the music library. But without word from Apple, the developers can’t be sure. The delays have angered fans, too, one of whom created the petition in hopes of forcing Apple’s hand.Update: One of the applications was just approved. Click through for more info. Why the Delay?The three developers mentioned in the fan-posted petition include Amidio, Pajamahouse Studios, and Musicsoft Arts. All three have created DJ applications which tap into a users’ own iTunes library. Unlike the DJ applications already available in the App Store, these new apps let users mix their own tracks while offering features like simultaneous playback of multiple tracks, pitch, fade, tempo, and more. Other DJ applications, on the other hand, only let users mix loops that have no rights associated with them. The rights issue may be one of the problems causing the delays. It’s highly likely that the labels don’t want their artists’ songs to be used in this way without some sort of controls in place – if they deem to allow this type of interaction at all. If that’s the case, though, the developers simply want Apple to tell them so.Another explanation for the delay may have to do with Apple’s current ban on dual access to the iPhone’s music library via third-party applications. In order to work around this ban, the developers came up with an alternative method which involves transferring music over Wi-Fi instead. Of course, Apple may see this “workaround” as just a loophole allowing the developers to break the rules while not technically violating any of Apple’s edicts. But again, without word from the company itself, there’s no way to be sure. The PetitionAlthough the developers themselves aren’t behind the online petition, they’ve been frustrated for some time regarding the delay. For example, a posting on the Sonorasaurus blog reads:“We have been waiting about 3 months now with no word on if we are approved and when we can release. It is nice to see other people taking issue with Apple’s system and their interest in getting DJ apps on the platform. So to whomever thought to include us in their petition: Thank you.”The petition itself isn’t a kindly-worded plea for Apple’s attention either, but an angry letter demanding that attention instead: There are more than 20 million of iPhone and iPod Touch users in the world, but there is no decent DJ MP3 application on iPhone/iPod Touch. Why? Because Apple doesn’t approve any of them! At least two quality DJ MP3 applications – Touch DJ (www.amidio.com) and Sonorasaurus (www.sonorasaurus.com) are held “in review” since the beginning of the September. That’s 8 weeks in limbo which is insane. The developers of the apps are now facing serious troubles because a lot was invested into the production of the apps. Moreover, Apple doesn’t specify any reasons for such delays. There’s simply no information about what is going on. This is all really weird and absolutely unfair.Later, the petition writer adds that they had become aware of a third application, DJ Player, which was also waiting approval.Similar Apps Already ApprovedWhat’s really strange about this current delay, writes a blogger on Sonorasaurus.com (the app from Pajamahouse Studios), is that there are applications which have already been approved by Apple that offer similar features as their new app. For example, the Quixpin DJ uses the same mixing feature, Deadmau5 Mix uses the same packaged songs feature, and Air Sharing uses the same file uploading via HTTP feature. And Musicsoft Arts already has an app called the DJ Spooky The Secret Song which uses the same codebase as the yet-to-be-approved DJ Player application. UPDATE: Oddly enough, of the three apps in question, Amidio’s application was approved first, having just launched today in the App Store. Are the others far behind? Did the petition catch Apple’s eye or is this just a coincidence? We’ll have to stay tuned to the other developers’ websites and Twitter accounts to know for sure.Fans Care, TooRegardless of what happens, though, it’s an interesting development to see fans getting involved in complaining to Apple instead of just the developers themselves. Although we’ve already seen high-profile pull-outs from notable Apple developers like Joe Hewitt who created the iPhone’s Facebook application and Rogue Amoeba’s Paul Kafasis who quit after a three-and-a-half month delay in app approval, we’ve rarely heard complaints from users outside the tech blogosphere demanding the same. Could this mean “regular” folks are now becoming aware of Apple’s issues too? Possibly. The 272 people who have signed the petition aren’t all Apple developers or tech pundits. They’re just people who want these apps approved. Hat tip to iLounge for pointing to this petition. 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Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Next time I’m looking to hit the town, I’m going to fire up the just-released BarBird iPhone app – a smart little interface that lets you map, view and filter Twitter updates from nearly 10,000 bars and restaurants in 50 cities around the world. Twitter is a remarkably easy way for small business owners to use SMS or Facebook to publish their specials, event promotions and other information that makes it easier to identify spots that you might want to patronize. BarBird is like a geo-aware, semantically smart, venue-update browser on your phone. I like it. It’s been fun to test so far. In addition to the mobile app, BarBird also offers a website interface – though I’ve found no reason to use that – the phone works better. BarBird loads up a Google Map for your surroundings and displays recent updates from bars and restaurants. Each update is placed on a map and represented by a different icon depending on what kinds of language the update uses. You can choose to filter to view only updates concerning events happening tonight, discount specials, live music, ladies’ nights, no cover events or happy hour deals. Hopefully more kinds of filters will be made available in the future. I’d love to be able to view Tweets near me concerning particularly exciting meals. I’m really into hyper-local news, as well as food and drink – so this seems just like a little neighborhood newswire and real-time guide to me.You can also view the updates in list form and the app makes it easy to access all a venue’s Tweets, their Google Places information and reviews (look out, Yelp) and get directions to the venue. Above: A Tweet about meat.Saying these kinds of combo-apps are more appealing than Yelp is no exaggeration. It’s one thing to read long-form reviews of a restaurant, it’s another to be able to read tonight’s updates from a bar that posted by SMS or Twitter app. This combination of technologies really lowers the barrier to publishing updates for small businesses. Of course all of this presumes that small businesses will use Twitter. If they get results, presumably they will. Apps like BarBird, or integration of this kind of feature into other apps, could help make that more realistic.Building the ListingsHow did BarBird index 10,000 venues from 44 US cities and 6 cities outside the US? That’s an interesting part of the story as well. Co-founder Pierce Lamb says that craftiness went a long way.The company was able to build such a large data set so quickly by leveraging user-generated categorization on Twitter, in the form of Twitter Lists that users curated for their own uses on Twitter. By finding collections of Twitter accounts labeled with titles like “Portland bars,” (or whatever the city might be) BarBird was able to collect a large number of likely topical Twitter accounts at least ostensibly connected to a type of business. The team then queried Google Maps to see if each Twitter username captured returned a street adress; if it did not, then it was tossed out.The self-funded team plans to offer venue owners a free analytics package and rely on advertisements as their business model. The nice thing about BarBird is that the Tweets are already out there – this app just finds them and organizes them in a relavant context. Tags:#Mashups#mobile#web Related Posts marshall kirkpatrick Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology read more
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TeamAppearancesSemifinal WinsChampsActual ChampsNet Diff. Playoff Teams w/ Championship Odds 1989Miami31Florida St.26Notre Dame24Michigan20 Oregon31.800.600.0+0.60 Ohio St.52.250.961.0-0.04 YearTeam%Team%Team%Team% 2003LSU50USC50Oklahoma0Michigan0 Penn St.20.840.360.0+0.36 1991Miami34Washington32Florida25Michigan9 Auburn31.700.971.0-0.03 TCU10.420.150.0+0.15 2007LSU33USC29Va. Tech27Ohio St.11 2001Miami46Oregon39Florida16Colorado0 Florida St.105.382.593.0-0.41 LSU32.241.081.5-0.42 1999Florida St.40Nebraska30Alabama24Va. Tech6 Actual champions (or co-champs) are listed in bold. In 1990, Georgia Tech was co-champion but is not projected to have made the playoff that season.Playoff selection is based on pre-bowl Elo ratings and AP polls. Playoff games are simulated using Elo, except in cases where a matchup actually took place during bowl season (in which case the actual result was used). Certain teams are listed with a 0 percent championship probability because they lost a real-life game against a fellow playoff team.Source: Sports-Reference.com 1988Notre Dame44Miami33Nebraska12W. Virginia11 2006Florida42Ohio St.20Oklahoma19Michigan19 1998Tennessee62Florida St.14Florida13Ohio St.11 Miami94.862.382.5-0.12 2005Texas61USC15Ohio St.14Penn St.10 Total104522626+0.00 2010Auburn56Arkansas19TCU15Oregon11 2008Florida62USC15Alabama13Oklahoma11 Virginia Tech20.900.330.0+0.33 Oklahoma52.080.921.0-0.08 1994Nebraska38Penn St.27Florida25Miami10 What 26 extra years of playoffs would have looked likeHypothetical College Football Playoff fields for the 1988-2013 seasons based on Elo ratings and AP poll rankings Arkansas10.360.190.0+0.19 1995Nebraska53Florida18Tennessee17Northwestern12 2004USC51Auburn26California13Oklahoma10 1992Alabama44Florida St.23Miami18Notre Dame15 Northwestern10.300.120.0+0.12 Alabama73.642.644.0-1.36 Florida115.273.043.0+0.04 2000Oklahoma51Miami23Florida St.16Florida10 Stanford20.960.420.0+0.42 Nebraska74.032.082.5-0.42 2012Alabama50Stanford20Florida19Notre Dame11 Colorado20.500.370.5-0.13 Notre Dame62.871.281.0+0.28 How a playoff would have changed college football historyMost FBS college football championships by school under a hypothetical four-team playoff system, 1988-2013 USC63.601.801.5+0.30 2011Alabama55LSU24Okla. St.11Oregon10 Cincinnati10.430.080.0+0.08 The good news for the old system(s) is that each year’s real-world national champ — or at least the co-champ — would be the favorite to win the playoff as well. (The only time a historical national champ didn’t make our theoretical playoff was in 1990, when Georgia Tech4My alma mater, it should be noted. claimed the national title in the coaches’ poll but missed the top four in our rankings after entering the bowls seventh in Elo.) But the fact that the real-world champ tended to be the favorite in our hypothetical playoffs is no guarantee those seasons would have played out the same way: Even after including real bowl results when they happened, the championship favorite in any given year had only a 47 percent chance of winning the title on average.The most uncertain year of our hypothetical playoffs might have been the aforementioned 1989 campaign; without any real-life bowls to help guide us, our system gives all four teams at least a 20 percent chance of winning the national championship. And among years that featured at least one actual bowl result to work with, the wacky 2007 season — in which playoff favorite LSU would have only a 33 percent of replicating its real-world championship — probably would have kept providing us thrills well into January. But with a playoff in place, many seasons would likely have had different endings than the ones we’ve set to memory over the years.How different? Here are all the schools that would have made at least one playoff appearance under our hypothetical system,5Plus Georgia Tech! along with their projected and actual national championships won: Tennessee31.090.791.0-0.21 Texas21.270.721.0-0.28 Washington10.490.320.5-0.18 2009Alabama57Florida24Texas10Cincinnati8 1990Colorado37Miami26Florida St.25Notre Dame13 West Virginia21.050.330.0+0.33 1996Florida50Nebraska17Arizona St.17Florida St.16 Arizona St.10.400.170.0+0.17 Michigan52.030.850.5+0.35 2013Florida St.40Alabama22Stanford22Auburn16 Georgia Tech00.000.000.5-0.50 1993Florida St.48Notre Dame23W. Virginia22Nebraska8 The College Football Playoff has transformed the way teams and conferences build their schedules — and created plenty of controversy along the way — in the four seasons since it debuted. And even if the system could stand to make some improvements, it’s also been a relatively successful experiment in adding legitimacy to a championship that used to be determined through such opaque measures as media voting and computer ratings. For all the debate over “who’s in,” at least the eventual champion can say it won the title by beating two top-ranked opponents on the field.The benefits of a four-team bracket got us thinking: What if the current playoff structure had been in place before 2014? Who would likely have won the championship each year? (Would it have been different from the consensus champs of old?) And which schools would have gained — and lost — the most titles under a playoff system?Let’s answer those questions. (If you’re not interested in how we’re answering those questions, skip down to the first table.)First, we’ll need a way to determine which teams would have made the playoff each year. Unfortunately, over the first four years of the actual playoff’s existence, neither the AP poll nor our Elo ratings (which are designed, in part, to predict the playoff selection committee’s tendencies) have completely nailed the playoff field with their four highest-ranked teams going into the bowls. But a combination of both1Specifically, I added together a team’s rank in each list and re-sorted by that combined ranking, using Elo as the tie-breaker. has been a perfect 16 for 16 in terms of predicting the real-life playoff teams.So we’ll use that Elo/AP combo to pick the four playoff teams in each historical season.2A more complicated version of this process might have involved using our full CFP prediction algorithm to produce probabilistic playoff odds for more than the top four teams, but we’ll save that can of worms for another day. (Our Elo ratings can be calculated going back to the 1988 season, so that’s when our hypothetical exercise will begin.) I also found that, once the playoff field is set, the pre-bowl AP rankings alone have done the best job of matching the committee’s seeding for the teams, so we’ll set the seeds that way in our mythical playoffs.Next, we’ll need a way to play out the theoretical playoff games themselves. For that, we’ll use Elo, which provides a probabilistic forecast for any given game based on the two teams’ pregame ratings. In most cases, we’ll use each team’s pre-bowl Elo ratings to give us the chances of each team winning both its semifinal game and the championship game (conditional on making it that far). The only exception is when a slated matchup happened in a real-life bowl that season, in which case we’ll use the actual result for that semifinal or final matchup.A great example of this came in 2003, when both of our hypothetical semifinal games — No. 1 USC vs. No. 4 Michigan and No. 2 LSU vs. No. 3 Oklahoma — actually played out in the Rose Bowl and Sugar Bowl, respectively. In that case, the Trojans and Tigers would automatically advance to the title game, where each would have almost exactly a 50-50 shot at winning the championship, according to Elo.3Technically, LSU would be the slim favorite at 50.47 percent. At least one of these real-world matchups happened every year from 1988 to 2013 — except in 1989, when conference bowl tie-ins kept each of the four teams in our playoff field from actually playing one another.After following all of the rules laid out above, here’s how each season since 1988 would look if a playoff had been in place instead of the system that was used at the time: California10.340.130.0+0.13 Oklahoma St.10.400.110.0+0.11 Hypothetical Playoff Results 1997Nebraska50Michigan38Florida St.12Tennessee0 Georgia10.500.210.0+0.21 2002Ohio St.39USC22Georgia21Miami18 Playoff selection is based on pre-bowl Elo ratings and AP polls. Playoff games are simulated using Elo, except in cases where a matchup actually took place during bowl season (in which case the actual result was used).In 1990, Georgia Tech was co-champion but is not projected to have made the playoff that season.Source: Sports-Reference.com Aside from Alabama, which won the most real-life championships (four) of the 1988-2013 era but would project to have about 1.4 fewer under a playoff system, every other school’s projected title tally is within about a half-championship of its actual count, playoff or not. The anti-Bama might be Oregon, who made only one BCS title game in the years we’re covering (losing to Cam Newton and Auburn in the culmination of the 2010 season) but would figure to make three playoff bids under our hypothetical system — and probably would have given Miami more of a fight than Nebraska did in 2001. All told, the Ducks would figure to have won 0.6 more championships with a playoff than under the actual system.Over about 25 years, a handful of national titles is about the best you can do (see Bama’s four). So even a half-championship gain is a lot. And the more marginal differences further down the list matter, too. Imagine the effect on the fan bases at Oklahoma State, Cincinnati or Northwestern (!!!) if their teams had managed to get hot during the playoff and take home the championship. In general, you can see a pattern emerge in the table above: Under a four-team playoff, the long-term effect is to take titles away from many of the top programs and give extra chances to the next tier of teams. As counterintuitive as that sounds, given the way a program like Alabama has dominated the CFP since its inception, the addition of an extra semifinal game introduces more randomness to the system, which helps teams down the list.6It may have also been easier for non-powerhouse teams to crack the top four in a given season during the previous era of college football, given that the teams making the playoff since 2014 have uniformly been stellar programs. Or maybe after four seasons, we still don’t have enough of a sample yet to know for sure.I once wrote that the BCS wasn’t any worse at picking champs than the College Football Playoff would be, and in a certain sense, that’s not wrong. (Again, the real-life champs each season above would have also been the favorites to win the playoff.) But the more we’ve seen teams get a chance to prove their championship merit on the field against top competition, the more appealing it is. Now I only wish college football had the current system in place for the past quarter-century instead of the confusing mismash of arrangements that preceded it. read more